أنت هنا: الرئيسية موضوعــات حقوقيــة أبحاث ودراسات و أوراق عمل اوراق عمل ورشة المسئولية الإجتماعية

اوراق عمل ورشة المسئولية الإجتماعية

the
Middle East and North Africa Region1
Claudia Marcela C.rdenas Lemus2
4 December 2012
Sana’a, Yemen
1
This Paper waspreparedf  
or the First Yemen Human Rights Conference, 9-10
December 2012, Sana’a, Yemen.
2
The ideas and opinions expressed herein are those of the author and do not represent
those of any organization.
1
Introduction
Over the past two years, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has
experienced a massive wave of popular protests demanding greater social equity,
employment opportunities and inclusive economic development, which has led to
political changes at an unprecedented and unexpected scale. Though many countries
have been affected by this social unrest, these protests have triggered varied
economic, social and political reforms across the region and have culminated with the
forceful resignation of the ruling presidents of Tunisia, Egypt and Yemen and the
overthrow of the regime in Libya (WEF 2012).
These events have emphasized the importance of job creation in the region, which
will be a daunting challenge in the coming years as according to the Organisation for
Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) MENA Investment Programme,
these economies will need to create 25 million of jobs over the next decade just to
keep the current level of employment (OECD 2011). Whilst over the past decades,
most countries in the region have relied on government-led employment creation
through their state enterprises; the rapid population growth and the increasing number
of youth entering the labour market has made this to be an unsustainable task for the
public sector. This may explain why the current MENA regional unemployment rates
are the highest in the world with women and youth the most severely affected.
Given the persistent and increasing levels of unemployment, boosting private sector
employment seems to be inevitable as it is increasingly being recognized that only a
vibrant and growing private sector will be able to generate the economic growth that
is required to create employment in a sustainable manner (WEF 2012). However, the
private sector in the MENA region has historically faced a number of constraints
related to the dominance of state-owned enterprises in critical sectors and weak
policies and institutions required for a dynamic market economy (Petkoski et al
2009). Furthermore, according to a business survey undertaken for the 2011-2012’s
Arab World Competitiveness Report, business leaders identified a series of obstacles
for doing business in the region such as lack of access to finance, restrictive labor
regulations, inefficient government bureaucracy, inadequate educated workforce and
corruption, amongst others. Whilst over the past two decades, a gradual process of
reform has began to restructure the region’s economies with a progressive decrease of
the role of the state in the economy and with the emergence of the private sector as an
important driver of growth, further reforms need to be undertaken to create an
enabling environment where businesses can thrive.
Due to the acceleration of the process of globalization in the MENA region,
governments and businesses alike are operating in an increasingly unfamiliar and
challenging environment, whereby innovative approaches and multi-stakeholder
strategic partnerships to development are required (WB 2007). Thus, across the
international development community there has been an increased recognition of the
need to create strategic partnerships between the international, public, private and
non-governmental sectors to achieve holistic sustainable solutions to development
challenges as a lack of coordinated efforts and leadership has largely contributed to
the current challenges (Petkoski et al 2009 and WB 2007). In line with this, whilst
business models focusing primarily on profitability still abound around the world;
increasingly new models of inclusive and sustainable business are emerging, whereby
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social, environmental and development considerations are starting to be considered as
part of the core business model through the implementation of Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) programmes. Thus, it seems that it is no longer possible to work
on development and CSR separately.
The aim of this paper is to shed some light on whether the private sector through its
CSRs’ activities can address the multiple development needs of the MENA region,
whilst facilitating inclusive and sustainable economic development. It is argued that
this will only be possible with the support of the government through the development
of strategic public-private partnerships. Some examples of existing partnerships in the
region are exposed to illustrate the development potential of these partnerships.
In the first part of this essay, we provide an overview of the historical background of
CSR and its evolution over time. In the second section, we endeavor to clarify the
meaning of CSR and explore the current internationally recognized CSR standards. In
the third part, we present the business case for CSR both at the firm and at the
national level, arguing how CSR can make business sense, whilst also contributing
significantly to the society and to the achievement of public policies. In the fourth
section, we analyze how CSR can be a development tool for MENA region and
present some case studies that demonstrate that though advances have been done in
the correct direction, this tool has not yet been fully utilised. In the fifth part, we
analyze the role of the state and highlight the different instruments that it has to
support and encourage the implementation of CSR within the business sector. Finally,
we proceed to the conclusion that provides a summary of the key findings and
highlight some of the challenges that still need to be addressed to professionalise and
institutionalize CSR’s practice.
I. Historical background of CSR
The concept of CSR has a long and varied history. In the West, it is possible to trace
back its origins to the development of corporations in the 19th century, when business
leaders motivated by strong Judeo-Christian values, saw their contribution to the
wellbeing of their society as part of their social responsibility (WBCSD 1998; Carroll
2008; and Carroll and Shabana 2010). However, the term of CSR as such originated
in 1953 with the publication of Howard Bowen’s Social Responsibility of
Businessmen book, where he defined the social responsibilities of businessmen and
encouraged them to make decisions and pursue policies, which are desirable for the
society (Crane et al. 2008). Whilst the decade of the 1960s was marked by a
significant growth in the attempts to formalize more accurately the meaning of CSR
(Jamali 2007); the 1970s, saw the emergence of many CSR initiatives in the West, in
response to the emergence of consumers and environmental pressure groups and
media coverage that could potentially damage corporate reputation. These CSR’s
actions were designed to reposition firms as good corporate citizens (Petkoski et al
2009).
The 1980s witnessed attempts at refining previous conceptualizations and writing into
alternative related concepts such as business ethics and social responsiveness,
amongst others (Jamali 2007). This decade also saw a radical re-thinking about the
roles of the state and business in Western society, whereby it became imperative to
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reduce the cost of state-funded welfare and place greater responsibility on the
business (WBCSD 1998). The 1990s saw a dramatic increase in the reporting of CSR
activities, largely driven by multinational corporations seeking to demonstrate a high
level of ethical standards and social accountability to be able to penetrate foreign
markets and take advantage of the new markets and business opportunities brought up
by the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe (WBCSD 1998). In 1997, John
Elkington coined the concept of “Triple Bottom Line” to measure the success of a
company based on its economic, social and environmental performance. In the first
decade of the 21 century, this led the business community to move increasingly
towards sustainable business practices demanding the full integration of CSR within
their core business model to contribute to sustainable development (Carroll 2008 and
Carroll and Shabana 2010). This has been further encouraged by strong empirical
evidence demonstrating the validity of Porter’s and Kramer (2006)’s "shared value"
or "sustainable value" creation concept whereby the economic benefits of a company
are mutually dependant on meeting the needs of communities. This is especially valid
in the oil and gas sectors that are predominant across the MENA region, whereby the
wellbeing and stability of the communities situated along the pipelines is directly
related to the profitability of the companies. This emphasis on the economic benefits
derived from taking into consideration environmental and social considerations is
generally referred to as the business case for CSR (Luetkenhorst 2004) and has
increasingly encouraged firms to include them as part of their corporate mission,
vision and philosophy. Though generally most of CSR activities are funded by profits;
the firms are increasingly encouraging their employees to volunteer and transfer their
skills and knowledge.
In a parallel process, since the end of the 1990s, the international development
community also began to think about new ways to solve development challenges and
began to realize the importance of the private sector, as a key partner to achieve
sustainable development. This led to the creation of the United Nations Global
Compact in 1999, which is a strategic policy initiative whereby participatory
signatory firms commit themselves to align their operations and strategies with ten
agreed principles in the areas human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption.
Since then, a series of conferences, initiatives and reports on the potential business
contribution to achieving the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) began to
emerge. In 2008, Gordon Brown, the British Prime Minister joined efforts with
UNDP and the private sector to launch the “Business Call to Action,” whereby
companies were challenged to develop innovative business models that achieve
commercial success and development outcomes. Another important trend that is
contributing to the convergence between business and sustainable development is the
Base of the Pyramid (BOP) approach to business, whereby new business models have
found profitable business opportunities of engaging the poor, which represent a
significant yet largely unexploited market. These models treat the poor not as passive
recipients of corporate philantrophy but instead see them as consumers, producers and
distributors. These BOPs approaches stress that profits can be made by doing business
with the poor, which, in turn, create opportunities for the poor to lift themselves out of
poverty. For example, the Mexican multinational cement producer CEMEX has
successfully developed a housing product line for the poor. Whilst this new business
era is still in its early stages, some well documented successful examples can be
drawn in a number of countries and sectors; however, the potential of BOP models for
MENA is undeniable (Petkoski et al 2009).

4
Though the concept of CSR was coined in the West; there is evidence of the existence
of similar concepts in the Arab World. The MENA region has a long tradition of
wealthy entrepreneurs providing for the wellbeing of their society based on Christian
and Islamic values. Amongst predominantly Muslim countries, corporate
philanthropy builds naturally on Islamic concepts such as zakat, a religious
requirement that demands Muslims to donate a fixed percentage of their income to
needy causes or individuals. Though the region’s understanding of CSR is primarily
conceived as charity; more recently the concept of strategic philantrophy which is
more in line with the concept of CSR, as conceived in the West, has been increasing
in popularity across the region. Whilst zakat and CSR are two distinct phenomena,
companies in the region are starting to explore the potential of linking their zakat
funds to their firm’s strategy, as a powerful tool that will allow them to contribute in a
more sustainable way to the welfare of the societies where they operate and go
beyond mere charity, which has only a limited short-term impact (Petkoski et al
2009). The acknowledgement of this has led to discussions on whether the zakat can
be used to contribute to development related causes such as providing support to
community oriented projects, creating job training programs for the poor unemployed
youth, etc (Ibrahim, B., 2009).
Overall CSR is growing as a business practice in the Middle East as part of the innate
characteristics of the region’s Islamic tradition of giving, but is also being driven by a
series of factors such as: 1) poor government performance whereby business had to
step in to reduce social tension and create a safe environment to conduct business; 2)
growing awareness of CSR practices through advocacy; 3) complying with
international standards and reporting requirements; 4) awards on best CSR practices;
5) emergence of local civil society activists and international NGOs; and 6)
requirements being imposed by multinationals on local SMEs through their supply
chain (Visser 2008).
II. What is CSR and What are the Internationally Recognized CSR Standards?
As we saw in the previous section, over the decades, the concept of CSR has
continued to grow in importance and significance. Specialised journals, books,
magazines, dictionaries, encyclopedias, websites, news and blogs treat the concept on
a regular basis. The business community has formed business associations to speak
about the topic and share innovative examples of best practices (Carroll and Shabana
2010). Thus, CSR has become firmly established in the business lexicon and different
concepts have been indisctinctively used to describe and theorize this phenomena
such as corporate responsibility, corporate citizenship, corporate ethics, corporate
social responsiveness, corporate social performance, corporate conscience, corporate
accountability, responsible business, sustainable responsible business, corporate
social performance, corporate philanthropy, community relations and Triple Bottom
Line, to name a few (Asongu 2007; Banerjee 2007; and Gond and Moon 2011).
CSR can be described as a “chameleon concept” as its definition and nature seems to
change over time (Gond and Moon 2011). Its meaning differs across sectors, time,
geographical locations and local contexts reflecting different corporate governance,
institutional, economic, political, social, cultural, ethical, environmental and legal

5
frameworks within a particular national setting (WB 2007). Consequently, once CSR
is applied across various contexts, it is bound to have a different meaning as societies
and business leaders may have different understandings of what businesses owe to
societies in which they operate (Bodruzic 2012). In the US context, companies
volunteer to address social and economic issues through their CSR policies; in
contrast, in Europe, responsibility for these issues is undertaken as part of the
company’s legal responsibilities as an agreed share of their responsibility for society’s
interests and concerns (Visser 2008 and Williams and Aguilera 2008). In the
developing countries context, CSR is more related to the US model, whereby the
voluntary contribution of business leaders to their society is highly desirable to
generate economic growth, employment and decrease poverty. In the majority of the
developing world, CSR legal responsibilities generally have a lower priority,
reflecting the poorly developed legal infrastructure and the lower law enforcement
capacity of the government. Furthermore, contrary to the West where CSR seems to
be driven by consumer, environment and labor activism; in the majority of the
developing countries, CSR does not seem to arise from pressures or demands from
society (Petkoski et al 2009). Thus, in developing countries, CSR is most commonly
associated with philanthropy or charity and its practice is often associated with
traditional communitarian values and religion (Visser 2008). In these countries, CSR
is mainly considered as external to business and thus has not been mainstreamed into
the business core operations and long-term planning (WB 2007).
Moreover, even within countries, different sectors have developed different CSR
trajectories, reflecting the market structure and the risk and opportunity calculations
within the specific context (Gond and Moon 2011). It is for this reason that the
concept has been subject of considerable debate and controversy and is often
conceived as being vague and imprecise. Thus, definitions of the term abound to the
extent that there is still no strong consensus on its definition and one can legitimately
question whether when speaking about CSR, scholars and practitioners are referring
to the same concept (Asongu 2007 and Crane et al. 2008).
Whilst there is no recognized standard for CSR, most of the public sector
organizations adhere to the Triple Bottom Line approach, whereby it is recognized
that corporations have a degree of responsibility not only for the economic
consequences of their activities, but also for the social and environmental
implications. For the purpose of this essay, we will define CSR as the voluntary
commitment of business to integrate social and environmental concerns in their core
business model so as to contribute to sustainable development and thus improve its
long-term business profitability. This definition implies that companies have
responsabilities both internally towards its stakeholders, employees and suppliers; and
externally, towards its customers and the community in which they operate. This
definition is thus inexorably linked to good corporate practice and human rights
respect whose relevance has been highlighted in existing CSR international standards.
Over the past decade, numerous business and banking scandals, such Enron’s
accounting fraud, involving Arthur Andersen, have shaken public confidence in
private corporations, thus, increasing the need for greater accountability, transparency
and integrity across businesses. In recent years, CSR has emerged as a dominant issue
across corporations fearing both the emergence of new regulations as well as losing
reputation, thus they have proactively adopted policies to signal their commitment to

6
behave responsibly, have created forms of self-reporting and self-regulation such as
the Global Reporting Initiative, the Global Business Initiative on Human Rights and
the Equator Principles to assess the social and environmental impact of development
projects’ financing in developing countries; and have entered in partnerships with
NGOs such as World Wildlife Fund and Amnesty International to improve their
social and environmental practices (Crane et al. 2008). Furthermore, corporations
have experienced national and international pressures to adopt a more responsible
business behavior. In line with this, the European Commission designated 2005 as the
year of CSR in the European Union, as CSR is regarded as a way to enhance the
global competitiveness of European firms (Crane et al. 2008). Likewise, individual
EU member states have taken important steps to strengthen CSR related activities, for
example in 2000, the United Kingdom appointed a minister for CSR within the
Department for Trade and Industry. France took steps to legally require companies
comprising more than 300 employees to include the social and environmental impact
of their operations in their annual reports. The Netherlands linked financial support
for large companies with their compliance with the OECD Guidelines for
Multinational Enterprises and the Danish Government established the Copenhagen
Centre to focus on CSR research (Luetkenhorst 2004). Moreover various kinds of
corporate disclosure requirements have been adopted by Denmark, Germany, Finland,
France and Sweden, whist the UK issued voluntary guidelines on corporate social
reporting (Crane et al. 2008).
At the international level, International Organizations have played an important role
in promoting CSR, as CSR represents an opportunity to enlist the support of the
private sector to achieve economic, social, development and environmental policy
goals. Some prominent examples of international standards and initiatives regarding
corporations include: International Labour Organisation’s (ILO) Tripartite
Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, which provides a
framework of international rights for workers through the internationally agreed core
labour standards, including freedom of association, the right to collective bargaining,
the elimination of forced and child labour and the elimination of discrimination in
employment; ILO’s Tripartite Declaration of Principles Concerning Multinational
Enterprises and Social Policy; OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, which
set recommendations on responsible business conduct, including in the area of human
rights; ISO 26000 Guidance Standard on Social Responsibility; International Finance
Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards on Environmental and Social
Sustainability; United Nations Global Compact, which encourages corporate
responsibility in the areas of human rights, labor environment and governance; United
Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights; and UN principles of
Responsible Investment. This set of internationally recognized principles and
guidelines represents a strengthened global framework for CSR that is increasingly
taking a human rights’ dimension. Whilst, CSR is usually practiced by large high
profile corporations; over the past decade, smaller firms located in less
institutionalized CSR developing contexts have started to adjust to this CSR
internationally driven agenda due to the perceived business and country benefits.
III. The business case for CSR both at the firm and at the national level
As we have seen earlier, CSR is a controversial topic that has been subject to much

7
debate and criticism. The case against it has been most clearly articulated by the
economist Milton Friedman (1962, 1970) who argued that the only social
responsibility of business is to maximize returns for its shareholders. According to
this view, the self-interested actions of millions of participants in free markets will
lead to positive outcomes for the society, as the economy will expand and thus the
economic development processes will be set in motion. However, if the operation of
the free market cannot solve a social problem, it becomes the responsibility of the
government and not the business to address this issue. Addressing social issues comes
at a cost to business, it affects its competitivity and reduces its profitability, especially
in a globally competitive environment whereby not all businesses are expected to
address social issues. Within this line of argument, it is perceived that CSR has
emerged as a response to the perceived failures, shortcomings and limitations of
governments (Crane et al. 2008).
There are several arguments in favor of CSR, some argue that since corporations are
responsible for many of the social and environmental problems, they do have
obligations towards the society in which they operate and thus they are responsible for
addressing these problems (Carr et al 2004 and Bodruzic 2012). Another argument
states that businesses do not operate in a vacuum and thus their relationship to the
society and environment in which they operate is a critical factor of their ability to
continue operating effectively and to capitalize on new oportunities. Thus,
corporations should look beyond short-term motivations and realize that investing in
social and environmental related issues will help them create a favorable operating
environment whereby operation risks will be reduced and profitability will be
increased (EC 2001). Besides, firms may also be able to benefit from tax reductions
and avoid governmental intervention in the form of new legislation and regulation
Competitive advantage arguments contend that by adopting CSR policies, firms will
be able to develop a good reputation and public trust that will allow them to
strengthen their competitive advantage through attracting consumers, investors,
suppliers, lenders and talented employees, whilst reducing employee turnover,
absenteeism and associated recruitment costs (Carroll and Shabana 2010).
More recently, forward thinking business leaders have become more proactive and
have recognized the importance of undertaking more strategic CSR interventions by
including CSR into their core business strategy so as to achieve greater profitability.
According to a 2002 survey by PricewaterhouseCoopers, 70 percent of global
executives believed that CSR was vital to their companies’ profitability, thus linking
CSR with corporate financial success. This suggests that corporations increasingly
believe that by “doing good, they can do well,” thus, CSR is evolving into a core
business function that is vital to the firm’s overall long-term sustainability and
success (Carroll and Shabana 2010). Thus, CSR is increasingly viewed, not only as
making good business sense but also as contributing to the long-term prosperity of
companies and ultimately to their survival (WBCSD 2000).
Whilst a direct causal link between CSR and national competitiveness remain
uncertain and difficult to track; there is strong evidence of the benefits that CSR has
for individual companies and how this, in turn, can have a positive impact on national
competitiveness and development (BIS 2004). In the context of developing countries,
one of the largest problems in trying to understand the direct impact of CSR on
development is the fact that, until recently, this has been largely under-researched

8
(Bodruzic 2012). However, as seen previously, when systematically pursued as part
of the core business strategy, CSR allows companies to maximize profitability, whilst
also enabling them to contribute to the social welfare and sustainable development of
the communities in which they operate. This can only be achieved through going
beyond mere charity and making a conscious attempt at establishing a connection
between the company’s business and its social contributions, thus aligning selfinterest
with larger social and development goals. This is especially important in
developing contexts, where business are increasingly seen as key in bringing about
positive developmental outcomes. By adopting socially and environmentally
responsible policies, businesses can make a significant contribution to boosting
wealth creation and employment, whilst fostering social justice and protecting the
environment (HM Government 2008). For this to happen, it is important that
businesses implement effective labour, health, safety, human rights and
environmental policies. Besides they should also consider undertaking strategic social
investments that can benefit them and the society in which they operate, such as
development of local suppliers to improve the supply value chain, entrepreneurship
programmes, training, skills upgrading, apprenticeships and employment schemes
geared towards the most vulnerable and marginalized society groups such as lowskilled
people, people with disabilities, women and the youth (OECD 2011). This way
businesses can increase profitability and play a significant role in attaining sustainable
development. However, for this to happen, the government should also play a key role
as enabler and development partner.
To summarise, some of the benefits of including CSR as part of a business strategy
are the following: reduced risks and operation costs; enhanced Government relations
and reduced regulation oversight; enhanced brand image and reputation; increased
productivity and quality; increased sales and customer loyalty; increased market and
product expansion; increased ability to attract and retain employees; improving access
to capital; and improved finance performance (JFED 2005 and WB 2007). However,
beyond those benefits at the firm level, there can be substantial benefits that can spillover
to the national level in the form of economic growth, employment creation and
sustainable development. In the following section, we will see whether this is also
applicable at the MENA regional level.
IV. How can CSR be Applied as a Development Tool in the Middle East?
Whilst CSR is not a concept that is familiar and widely practiced in the Middle East,
it is increasingly growing as a business practice across the region. Though the new
business model incorporating CSR as part of the core business model is at a very early
stage in the region, there are compelling reasons why it should be taken seriously to
address regional economic competitiveness, social issues and development
challenges. This is of special importance in the current environment, as the region is
undergoing significant political and demographic challenges that are exacerbating
some of the region’s long-standing socio-economic problems. MENA has been
undergoing rapid population growth and currently has more than 100 million youths
between 15 and 29 years, representing 30% of the region’s total population (Petkoski
et al 2009). Youth are seeking economic and social opportunities and above all jobs;
however, their job prospects are slim as the education system is not equipping them
with the skills and knowledge that is required for them to succeed in the labor market.

9
Thus, the region is facing a critical problem of youth unemployment, especially for
first time job seekers between 15 and 24 years of age, which is a potential source of
instability as radicalized and unmotivated youths can easily be mobilized for conflict.
Whilst seeking solutions to employment challenges has long been the responsibility of
the government, it is unlikely that under the current conditions, they will be able to
comply alone with this responsibility. Hence, policymakers in the region are
increasingly realizing that they need to find new ways of addressing these challenges
in partnership with the private sector (Ibrahim 2009). Given its potential for
instability, there seems to be a growing agreement between companies and
governments that CSR activities should have a special focus on the youth (WB 2007).
In line with this, given that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and family
owned enterprises are very prominent in the Arab region and they are critical to the
region’s economic competitiveness, growth, wealth creation, poverty reduction and
employment generation; prioritizing them and supporting their integration in
profitable value chains where they can access new markets and finance, improve their
management practices and product quality and upgrade their technology is of central
importance (WB 2007 and Luetkenhorst 2004). The spillover effects in the economy
may be considerable if these SMEs are, in turn, participating in other value chains and
are linked with other firms (Luetkenhorst 2004).
At the regional level, steps have been taken by governments to institutionalize the
idea of CSR through the establishment in 2006 of a regional Institute for Corporate
Governance located in Dubai and the organization of different regional events such as
the second forum of Social Development for the Arab region that brought together
Ministers of Social Development of the whole region in 2008, amongst others. At the
national level, numerous CSR initiatives have flourished across the region that go
beyond traditional philanthropic practices such as is the case of Egypt. In 2007, Egypt
joined the UN Global Compact and signed a Memorandum of Understanding with
UNDP to expand CSR in Egypt, following which it chaired a Responsible Business
Forum and organized the first CSR national conference in 2008. Recognizing these
efforts and the growing interest on CSR both within the private and public sector, the
World Bank launched an online CSR training program available both in English and
Arabic (Petkoski et al 2009). The Egyptian government is also engaging businesses to
achieve environmental and social objectives through public-private partnerships; one
of them was in the construction and maintenance of 2200 new schools, where the
private sector invested in school’s construction and maintenance, whilst the
government covered teachers' salaries, administrative staff and the annual operation
cost (WB 2007). Furthermore, the Egyptian government has also been involved in
partnerships with multinational corporations to upgrade the capacity of its local
companies as part of their CSR. One example of this was its partnership with Heinz
company to increase tomato production by improving local technology, enhancing
coordination in the production, processing and marketing chain. This partnership
managed to improve the production capability and profitability of more than 3000
farmers (Petkoski et al 2009).
Similar trends have been observed in Jordan, where there is a high level of
commitment to CSR principles as exemplified by the Arab Leaders Sustainability
Group that was established by Her Royal Highness Queen Rania. Furthermore, the
royal family has also been making consistent efforts to encourage partnerships with
the private sector including the Jordan Education Initiative and INJAZ, which was

10
created to improve the job prospects of the youth by improving their productive
capacity (Petkoski et al 2009). While more traditional forms of charity continue to
exist, it is clear that CSR is becoming more strategically geared towards producing
societal change. One of the examples is provided by the Nuqul Group which has
passed from distributing food during Ramadan to more strategic investments that can
lead to long-term social change (Sherif 2009). It is considered to be one of the leading
regional pioneers in CSR affairs and community empowerment. Currently, it is
empowering the youth through training and practical experience to develop projects
that can respond to community development needs, including through the integration
of information and communication technologies. This CSR policy is also embedded
within its employees that participate actively in these activities. Another example is
ARAMEX, one of the world’s leading transportation and logistics providers, which is
committed to allocating one percent of its pre-tax profits to its global CSR initiatives.
In 2006, ARAMEX released its first Corporate Sustainability Report, the first of its
kind in the Arab world entitled ‘Changing Today, Protecting Tomorrow.’ At the heart
of ARAMEX’s CSR activities is to promote youth and community empowerment
(Sherif 2009).
Based on the Arab World Competitiveness Report, there seems to be a growing
agreement that responsible businesses are more competitive and that partnerships with
the government can be an effective tool to strengthen competitiveness. These
partnerships can focus on upgrading skills, enhancing industry or value chain
efficiency, improve governance and transparency, amongst others (Petkoski et al
2009). In line with this, over the past few years, Saudi Arabia has taken impressive
steps to promote and institutionalize CSR’s practices within the Kingdom. These
include, the establishment of the Saudi Arabian Responsible Competitiveness Index
(SARCI), which measures national companies on several social responsibility
indicators. It has also launched the King Khalid Award for Responsible
Competitiveness to reward the companies that have received the highest SARCI’s
rankings. The Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority (SAGIA) has also played
a key role in increasing the awareness and understanding of CSR (Jamali 2011).
Furthermore, the government has established the Responsible Competitiveness
Leadership Dialogues, which are designed to build awareness and local capacity to
implement strategic CSR activities by helping companies integrate responsible
business practices into their core business operations and improve their performance
in a number of social, environmental and governance areas (Petkoski et al 2009 and
Jamali 2011). Finally, as part of their CSR activities, firms are expected to contribute
significantly to the national policy of Saudization of the labour force, which
encourages firms to employ Saudi nationals in the private sector to deal with the
problem of unemployment. While traditional forms of charity still continue to exist,
companies are becoming more strategic in their CSR investments. An example of this
is the conglomerate Dallah Albarakah, which has recently established a CSR unit to
show its commitment to sustainable development and making more strategic
contributions towards society. It supports individuals who have initiatives in the field
of sustainable development through providing them with strategic planning and
financing (Shalaby 2009). However, whilst, in recent years, the country has improved
its competitiveness and has a more solid institutional framework, more efficient
markets and increasingly sophisticated businesses; it still faces many challenges
related to health, education and unemployment that will need to be addressed in
partnership with the private sector (WEF 2012).

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Qatar is one of the most prosperous and fast growing economies in the world and has
reaffirmed its position in the 2011-2012 Arab World Competitiveness report as the
most competitive economy in the Gulf. This strong performance is largely due to its
solid institutional framework, stable macroeconomic environment, efficient goods
market, low corruption levels, highly efficient government institutions and high
security levels (WEF 2012). Whilst, over the years, a culture of CSR is growing in
Qatar’s flourishing business sector; few businesses have established CSR units or
foundations and instead have decided to contribute financially and in-kind to worthy
causes through Qatari NGOs or foundations (Khallaf 2009). However, given the
favorable institutional context, it is expected that, in the coming years, CSR will
become more institutionalized and that companies will increasingly seek to align their
core business activities with their CSR practices (Khallaf 2009).
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is another good example of competitiveness due to
the high quality of its infrastructure, highly efficient goods markets, strong
macroeconomic stability, high government efficiency and high public trust. However,
Emirates still needs to prioritize more its investment in health and education that need
to be addressed in partnership with the private sector (WEF 2012). The rapid
economic growth of UAE, over the past few decades, has led to substantial
accumulation of wealth both of the ruling families as well as for the leaders of the
business sector. With this surge of wealth, philanthropy of a charitable and
humanitarian nature has also increased in the form of donations by corporations to
charity or directly to needy individuals. It is notable that these donations seldom have
a strategic dimension, as they are not connected with the strategic goals of the
corporation; thus, until recently there have been few attempts to consider strategic
CSR that could lead to systemic transformation. This is despite the fact that in a
business leaders’ survey organized by the Dubai Ethics Resource Center in 2006, 72%
of them responded that they were highly aware of the concepts related to CSR;
however, only 24% of local companies reported to be undertaking CSR activities.
More recently, in a 2012 survey for the Dubai Chamber of Commerce’s Centre for
Responsible Business, only 44% of the companies surveyed said that CSR was of any
importance to their company; while only 8.5% had solid policies in place (Salisbury
2012). Thus, by far the most common CSR activities in the UAE are associated with
Emiratization, which are efforts to nationalize the labor force by educating and
preparing the youth for the work place as well as securing job opportunities for them
(Ronnegard 2010). However, more recently, there is an emerging trend towards
strategic CSR, whereby government officials and business leaders are considering
tackling challenges in a more strategic way by investing in activities that can deliver a
sustainable impact (Sherif 2009). In line with this, employee health and safety and
environmental concerns are also gaining attention due to the challenges faced in those
areas. The challenges related to health and safety are closely related to the
construction boom scandals (Palm Island and Kurj Khalifa), whereby the existing
health and safety regulation that governs the construction industry was not respected,
and thus greater efforts are required to see this enforced. In terms of environment,
there is a great concern as the UAE has one of the world’s largest carbon footprint per
capita, largely because of the use of fossil fuels for electricity production coupled
with the huge electricity demand for personal and industrial purposes. One of the
companies that is trying to tackle this problem is Dubai Aluminum Company Limited
(Dubal), the world’s seventh largest producer of premium aluminum, which has set

12
targets for reducing carbon emissions and is investing in technology development to
improve the energy efficiency of its industrial process (Ronnegard 2010).
According to the 2011-2012 Arab World Competitiveness report, Yemen ranks lowest
amongst the Gulf economies in terms of competitiveness. This reflects the numerous
challenges that the country is facing in terms of weak institutional framework, poor
educational and health outcomes and underdeveloped infrastructure. Whilst, in
Yemen, awareness of CSR among consumers and producers is low; over the past few
years, the government has made efforts to increase CSR awareness and understanding
by taking steps towards establishing CSR units within key ministries such as the
Ministry of Industry and Trade; the Ministry of Planning and International
Cooperation and the Ministry of Human Rights. The latter has an established CSR
unit since July 2012 and has organized several events where CSR has been promoted,
including during the first Human Rights Task Force; a CSR workshop and more
recently during the fore-coming first National Human Rights Conference on 9
December. Besides, over the past few years, the Yemeni government has encouraged
companies to engage more in CSR activities through the adoption of the CSR Award
and has called them to participate in the country’s economic development as part of
their social responsibility (Alawi and Rahman 2011). The private sector has also been
very active in promoting CSR thought the Yemeni Businessmen Club and the
Federation of Yemen Chambers of Commerce and Industry. Whilst there is evidence
that some Yemeni companies such as Hayel Saeed Group are implementing CSR
policies, unfortunately, most companies have still a limited understanding of what
CSR is and very often confuse it with charity.
In brief, we have seen that CSR is still a relatively new concept throughout the region
and is still being mostly associated with charity. This is despite the governments and
businesses making substantial efforts to make CSR more strategic and
institutionalized. Whilst more strategic CSR has recently emerged in the region, this
practice has been uneven between countries and industries and has been associated
only with some companies, making this to be isolated cases. However, given that
strategic CSR makes good business case and can contribute substantially to tackle the
persistent challenges faced in these countries, there is still a case for CSR as a tool for
development that the most progressive leaders of the region may want to grasp.
Whilst it is undeniable that the private sector through its CSRs’ activities can address
the multiple development needs of the MENA region and create sustainable economic
development, this will only be possible with the support of the government. In the
new development context, it is increasingly undeniable that both actors need to join
their efforts to address developmental problems through strategic public-private
partnerships to produce valuable outcomes both for business and society. In this
context, what should be the role of the government?
V. Role of government in CSR?
For the private sector to be able to support the achievement of public policy goals and
address the multiple development needs of the MENA region, the public sector needs
to play a critical role (Crane et al. 2008). Thus, governments across the region need to
identify the most appropriate actions that they need to undertake according to their
contexts to promote and support the development of CSR at the firm, local, sectoral,

13
regional and international levels.
In general, governments are expected to regulate and provide an enabling policy and
institutional environment that encourages and rewards socially and environmentally
responsible behavior (Ward et al. 2007). In this regard, governments have a key role
to play in harmonizing national laws and legislation with internationally recognized
CSR standards; whilst setting up standards in areas such as environmental protection,
health, safety, employment and human rights (BIS 2004). Placing emphasis on
transparency and accountability is also key for building a competitive environment
where the private sector can thrive and create value (WB 2007). Governments should
also be able to establish penalties and rewards, minimum standards and targets.
However, for this to happen governments need to have the capacity to undertake their
role efficiently and enforce law.
A second role that governments are expected to accomplish is to facilitate by
providing tax incentives to encourage socially responsible business behaviors (tax
exemption or deduction from the taxable income the money spent on CSR related
activities); sharing and dissemination of best practices; supporting companies on how
to implement CSR as part of its core strategic model; improve reporting and company
disclosure of social and environmental information; integrate CSR into education,
training and research; and awareness raising to enhance the understanding of CSR
through organizing a series of conferences and workshops that can bring together
governments, businesses, employees, trade unions, NGOs and academics; (Crane et
al. 2008 and EC 2001).
A third role that the government can play is through promoting partnerships with the
private sector to pool resources together to achieve social, environmental and
developmental mutually beneficial goals (Ward et al. 2007 and Jamali 2011). It can
also enhance the positive benefits of foreign investment in the local economy by
adopting attractive national investment promotion strategies aimed at attracting
responsible foreign investors that can contribute to sustainable development by
transferring skills, knowledge, good practices and technology. Governments can also
support national companies to upgrade their export capacity and comply with
international standards so as they are able to compete in foreign markets, whilst
contributing to national development priorities.
A fourth role that governments are expected to fulfill is the development of code of
conducts, standards, guidelines and indicators to guide companies in their CSR
efforts; whilst publicly praising and rewarding good CSR practices through CSR
awards. Finally, governments through their public procurement capacity can
encourage good CSR practices by awarding contracts to socially responsible
companies (Ward et al. 2007).
In sum, governments have different instruments to promote and encourage
responsible business CSR practices. Their application will depend on the context as
well as the level of CSR awareness, practice and understanding. However, a key
prerequisite for this to happen is that governments should have the will and capacity
to undertake this task. Thus, the proper functioning of the state is indispensable for
sustainable development, as only an efficient state can ensure the effective application
of the laws and regulations and the fostering of a culture of compliance with the law.

14
Conclusion
In the previous sections, we have seen that though the concept of CSR as such was
coined in the West; there is evidence of the existence of similar concepts in the Arab
World based on MENA’s long standing tradition of wealthy entrepreneurs providing
for the wellbeing of their society based on Christian and Islamic values. Whilst there
is still no consensus on its definition as its meaning and application is highly
contextual, the concept has been increasingly used across the region as corporations
are starting to realize the potential benefits that a CSR strategy can produce both at
the firm and at the national level in the form of economic growth, employment
creation and sustainable development. Thus, they are gradually embracing it as part of
their long-term strategic approach to operations and planning rather than conceiving it
just as mere charity. The most progressive leaders of the region are increasingly
willing to experiment with new business models that incorporate CSR as part of the
core business model. However, there is still a long way to go, for the business leaders
of the region to realize the unexploited benefits and opportunities that can exist
through the application of Base of the Pyramid approaches to business, whereby
profitable business opportunities exist of engaging the poor as consumers, producers
and distributors.
Given the current environment, whereby the region is undergoing significant political
and demographic challenges that are exacerbating some of the region’s long-standing
socio-economic problems, policymakers in the region are increasingly realizing that
they need to find new ways of addressing these challenges in partnership with the
private sector. Thus, governments across the region are actively engaging in
promising public-private partnerships that can promote economic opportunities and
sustainable development. Likewise, they are realizing the potential that CSR can have
in supporting their development efforts and thus are promoting and encouraging it.
Whilst some progress has been achieved, other potential roles that the government
may wish to consider were also highlighted.
Whilst public-private partnerships are very promising, the private sector is still facing
many constraints and thus, governments are required to create an enabling
environment for a vibrant private sector to development and growth. In line with this,
governments’ capacity across Ministries may also need to be further strengthened and
enhanced to undertake this task and promote successfully CSR initiatives.
There may be potential for greater intra-regional collaboration that can go beyond
regional conferences toward more strategic partnerships to share best practices in the
area of CSR in similar contexts, build skills and link practitioners into networks
composed of all relevant actors such as governments, businesses, business
associations, civil organizations, NGOs, consumer groups, labour unions and
academia. The inclusion of all of these groups is key to make the process of CSR
more inclusive and institutionalized. However, for this to work a more informed
public and civil society will need to emerge to make the practice of CSR more
transparent and its actors more accountable.

15
There is also a need to professionalize the CSR sector by providing training, advice
and practical guidance to companies willing to further deepen their CSR policies.
However, there seems to be a lack of this type of consulting services across the
region. Finally, there is also an urgent need to increase research in this topic and
encourage academia to inculcate a culture of corporate responsibility and ethical
behavior not only amongst its business students but across all students.
16
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البيئة وحقوق الإنسان


إعداد
د. معتوق الرعيني



تعريف البيئة :
تعريف الايكولوجي :
مكونات البيئة :
الاتفاقيات الدولية والتي بلادنا مصادقة عليها وهي معنية بحماية البيئة ومكوناتها وعناصرها. وجميع هذه المواثيق الدولية تكرس في حق الإنسان في بيئة سليمة خالية من التلوث وتعتبر هذه المعاهدات الدولية هي الركن الأساسي التي تتمحور حوله السياسة البيئية التي على الدول تبنيها من خلال إطار تشريعي داخلي ، وتجد له لائحة تنظيمية وآلية للتنفيذ .
عدد الاتفاقيات والمواثيق الدولية والتي بلادنا موقعة عليها عددها 14 اتفاقية دولية واليمن تعتبر الدولة العربية الوحيدة التي موقعة ومصادقة على هذه العدد الكبير من هذه الاتفاقيات الدولية ، فهل تم الاستفادة منها بالرغم من الالتزامات المترتبة على بلادنا ماديا وسياسياً وأدبياً  وعملياً وفنياً.
أن الحق في بيئة سليمة هو حق لصيق  با الإنسان كون البيئة والإنسان يشكلان وحدة متكاملة لا يمكن تصور جدوى أحدهما دون الآخر  .
المشاكل البيئية في بلادنا والتي لها أضرار على الإنسان وصحته العامة ، واقع الحال البيئي في بلادنا .
كما ذكرنا سابقاً أن للإنسان حق العيش في بيئة سليمة خالية من التلوث أو الملوثات العضوية وان يأكل غذاء صحي ويتنفس هواء نقي ويعيش حياة بيئية آمنة مستقلة .
ومن المشاكل البيئية في بلادنا وذات الأولوية الملحة :
1-    مشكلة المبيدات والسموم والاستخدام العشوائي لها والاستيراد وبصورة كبيرة زائدة عن الاحتياج إضافة إلى ما يدخل  إلى البلاد من كميات كبيره مهربة وأغلبها محرمة دولياً .
2-    مشكلة التلوث الجوي بالانبعاثات الناتجة عن عوادم السيارات والمصانع ، وحرق القمامة والمخلفات الصلبة بصورة عشوائية .
3-    البلاستيك والذي يصنع دون مواصفات عالمية ويتم استخدامه بكميات كبيرة ورميه بصورة عشوائية في الشوارع وفي جميع المناطق الآهلة بالسكان أو المناطق الزراعية بما يؤثر على التربة والزراعة والمياه السطحية والجوفية وأيضاً على البيئة البحرية عندما يرمى إلى البحار بصورة عشوائية .
4-    الوعي البيئي  تقريبا مفقود .
5-    القانون البيئي  لم يفعل ولم تستكمل إجراءاته من عام 95 إلى اليوم .
6-    الاتفاقيات الدولية .
7-    البناء المؤسسي السليم  غير موجود لذالك القرار البيئي غير سليم .
8-    المخلفات الصناعية الخطرة .
9-    المخلفات الصحية الخطرة .
10-    المخلفات الصلبة .
11-    المخلفات الغازية .
12-    التنمية المستدامة وعناصرها الإحدى عشر  الأخرى .
13-    منها عناصر  أساسية تهتم  بقضايا البيئة كيفية حماية البيئة وتحديد الحدود البيئية ، والتخلص والتقليل من النفايات الخطرة  واحد العناصر الأساسية في الحكم الرشيد  - حماية البيئة والتنمية المستدامة .
14-    التلوث بالضجيج .
15-    التلوث المعنوي .
16-    المياه .
17-    تلوث البحار .
مخطط إداري عملي جزئي  حلقه عملية متكاملة

# واقع الحال على الأرض
واقع  الحال  للوضع البيئى  فى بلادنا :
1)    الأرض والتربة
أن تلوث التربة يشكل تهديداً رئيسياً للسلامة والصحة العامة خصوصاً في المناطق السكنية فهو يساهم بتلويث مجاري المياه السطحية نتيجة سيلان مياه الإمطار ويؤدي إلى تلويث المياه الجوفية من خلال تسرب الملوثات إلى جوف الأرض ويمنع الغطاء النباتي من النمو وهذا ما يؤدي على المدى البعيد إلى تفاقم مشكلة التصحر التي بدأت تظهر في اليمن تدريجياً .
أن حماية وسط التربة من الضغوطات التي تفرضها عليه القطاعات الملوثة يتطلب اتخاذ مجموعة من التدابير والإجراءات على مختلف المستويات أو المراحل التنظيمية (التخطيط ، المعايير والشروط البيئية ، شروط الترخيص البيئية ، مراقبة التنفيذي ، ... الخ ) من قبل جميع الجهات المعنية ، تجدر الإشارة هنا إلى فقر القانون الوضعي في اليمن المتعلق بحماية تلوث التربة ، بالرغم من أن بعض الاتفاقيات الدولية ، كتلك المتعلقة بمكافحة التصحر والتي انضم إليها اليمن مؤخراً ، ألزمت الجهات الرسمية اتخاذ التدابير والإجراءات التشريعية والتنفيذية اللازمة لحماية التربة من التصحر وضبط النشاطات المؤدية إلى تفاقم هذه المشكلة، اغفل القانون الوضعي لليمن أي توزيع للمسؤوليات والواجبات فيما يتعلق بمعالجة تلوث الأراضي.
أن السبب الرئيسي لعدم وجود نصوص تعالج واجبات ومسئوليات أصحاب الأراضي تجاه إعادة تأهيل وتنظيف أراضيهم الملوثة هو الكلفة الباهظة المترتبة عن هذه الخطوات بالنسبة إلى الدول النامية ومنها اليمن فضلاً عن كون لبنان يفتقر إلى استثمارات صناعية كباقية الدول الأخرى حيث تعتبر الصناعة المصدر الرئيسي والأساسي لتلوث التربة .
في الجانب التطبيقي ، يلاحظ أن التشريعات البيئية لم تعط موضوع حماية التربة من التلوث الأهمية الكافية ، وبالأخص في ما يتعلق بتحديد نظام تقديم الشكاوى والبلاغات ، وتدعيم المراقبة .
ولم تصدر مراسيم تطبيقية لتحديد دقائق تطبيق النصوص القانونية، كذلك يحول دول تطبيق النصوص افتقار الإدارات المعنية ولاسيما في وزارة المياه والبيئة إلى الموارد البشرية المتخصصة والحوافز والتجهيزات اللازمة لمعالجة تلوث التربة وتحديد آليات المراقبة وضبط المخالفات .
2)    الهواء :
تتعرض الموارد الطبيعية في اليمن لضغوطات وتعديات كثيرة ، نتيجة النقص الذي يعتري النصوص اليمنية  بشكل رئيسي ، فبالرغم من وجود بعض النصوص التي تعالج تلوث الهواء ، كقانون حماية البيئة الذي شدد على أهمية حماية الموارد الطبيعية من المخاطر والملوثات بمصادرها كافة ، يمكن القول أن المخالفات الحاصلة في هذا مجال لا تزال عديدة .
أن حماية وسط الهواء من الضغوطات التي تسببها القطاعات الملوثة كأكل، يتطلب أن تأخذ جميع الجهات المعنية مجموعة من التدابير والإجراءات على مختلف المستويات والمراحل التنظيمية (التخطيط ، وضع معايير وشروط بيئية ، تحديد شروط الترخيص البيئية ، مراقبة التنفيذ ، ...الخ ) والجدير بالذكر أن بعض الاتفاقيات الدولية المتعلقة بالمحافظة على نوعية الهواء ، والتي انضم إليها اليمن ألزمت الجهات الرسمية اتخاذ بعض التدابير والإجراءات التشريعية والتنفيذية المتعلقة مباشرة بحماية الهواء من التلوث وذلك من خلال ضبط الانبعاث الصادرة عن القطاعات الملوثة .
3)    المياه :
ان المياه ليست أكثر ما يندر في اليمن إلا أنها أسرع ما يتلوث بسبب عدم الرعاية الكافية من قبل الدولة للمجاري والسواقي ، ان غياب  تطبيق سياسة ترشيد المياه يفاقم الوضع البيئي سوءاً مما يؤثر بشكل مباشرة على معيشة الإنسان ان لجهة عدم توفر المياه لتأدية إغراضه الشخصية أو تأمين مياه الشفة أو لجهة عدم تأمين ديمومة مورد المياه من خلال الاستفادة من مياه الإمطار والينابيع المتفجرة ، ففي حين تذهب معظم الثروة المائية هدراً نلاحظ غياباً صارخاً لأي سياسة مائية صارمة .
4)    الصناعة :
إن قطاع الصناعة يسهم في تلويث الهواء والمياه والتربة ، فالتلوث ينتج عن بناء المنشآت الصناعية وشق الطرقات للوصول إلى هذه المنشآت ، أضف إلى ذلك إنتاج النفايات الصلبة والانبعاثات والنفايات السائلة التي تبث في المحيط ، دون إغفال التلوث السمعي وتأثير حركة نقل المواد الأولية والمنتجات .
وقبل أن تصبح حماية البيئة علماً قائما بذاته وركناً من أركان التنمية المستدامة لم يضع المشرع اليمني الأماكن الخطرة والمضرة بالصحة والمزعجة تحت الإشراف الإداري ، فسن جملة من التدابير للوقاية من أخطار التلويث في كافة مراحل العمل كمرحلة التخطيط وإعداد الدراسات ، ووضع المعايير ، والترخيص بالإنشاء والترخيص بالاستثمار ، ومراقبة التشغيل ..الخ .
5)    النقل :
يعتبر قطاع النقل (البري والبحري والجوي) من بين القطاعات التي تضع ضغوطا كبيرة على البيئة في اليمن وذلك بدءً من انعكاسات إنشاء البني التحتية كالطرقات والمرافئ والمطارات على المناظر والثروات الطبيعية والنظم البيئية ، حتى مؤثرات حركة النقل (السيارات والسفن ، والطائرات) من خلال ملوثات الهواء والماء والأرض والضجيج التي تبث في المحيط ، وفي اليمن يسهم قطاع النقل بما يقارب 80 من مشكلة تلوث الهواء في المدن الكبرى .
إن حماية البيئة من الضغوط التي يسببها قطاع النقل تتطلب اتخاذ مجموعة من التدابير والإجراءات على مختلف المستويات أو المراحل التنظيمية (التخطيط وإعداد الدراسات ، وضع المعايير ، تحضير المشاريع والترخيص بالإنشاء ، تنفيذ المشاريع ومراقبة التنفيذ ، تشغيل المشاريع وتأمين الصيانة ، الخ) وذلك من قبل جميع الجهات المعنية ، وقد ألزمت العديد من الاتفاقيات الدولية التي انضم إليها اليمن الجهات الرسمية بوضع تدابير وإجراءات ومعايير تتعلق بشكل مباشر أو غير مباشر بحماية البيئة من آثار قطاع النقل إلا أنه لم تصدر بشكل واضع أية نصوص تطبيقية لهذه القوانين مما يخلق ثغرة كبيرة في تطبيق الالتزامات وتفعيل تنفيذها .
6)    البلاستيك :
7)    التلوث المعنوي :
التحديات والصعوبات :
بالرغم من تكريس حق الإنسان في بيئة سليمة في قانون حماية البيئية ، يشهد اليمن عوائق عديدة تواجه حسن تطبيق المبادئ المكرسة وأهمها :
-    محدودية المعرفة والخبرة والاختصاص لدى القطاعين العام والخاص في مجال التشريع البيئي ، ما يعيق حسن إعداد وإقرار النصوص التي من شأنها جعل هذه المبادئ قابلة للتطبيق .
-    مشاركة محدودية للمجتمع لدى إعداد القوانين والأنظمة البيئية .
-    صعوبة تأمين التكامل بين مهام ومسئوليات الوزارات المعنية .
-    محدودية الموارد البشرية ، التقنية والمالية .
-    عقوبات غير فعالة وعدم فرض هيبة الدولة وعدم صدور القوانين الخاصة بحماية البيئة رغم وجودها في الإدراج .
-    محدودية الوعي لدى الجمهور.
 

المسئولية الاجتماعية للقطاع الخاص
في تنمية المشروعات الصغيرة

إعداد
أ. حمود العريفي


المحتويات
مقدمة
أهمية الورقة  وأهدافها
مفهوم المسئولية الاجتماعية
لماذا تحتاج البلد إلى تفعيل دور المشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر
مفهوم المشاريع الصغيرة والأصغر
مؤشرات وضع المشروعات الصغيرة في العالم
دور ومساهمة المشروعات الصغيرة في الاقتصاديات الوطنية
المعوقات والمشاكل التي تواجه المشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر
ما الذي يمكنه أن يقدمه القطاع الخاص للمشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر
 
مقدمة :
يكتسب الدور الاجتماعي للشركات في الدول العربية أهمية متزايدة بعد تخلي العديد من الحكومات عن كثير من مسئولياتها الاقتصادية والخدمية ، حيث أصبح هناك عدد من الشركات التي تسعى الى تبني برنامج فعالية المسئولية الاجتماعية أخذة في الاعتبار ظروف المجتمع والتحديدات التي تواجهه ، وفي ظل تسارع وتيرة تطور العصر الحديث في مجال الأعمال يبرز مفهوم المسؤولية المجتمعية للمؤسسات، وهنا لم تكن اليمن بمنأى عن هذا المفهوم الذي ما زال في طور النضوج، ولم تتحدّد ملامح ممارسته بدقة بعد، فتنوعت التعريفات بشأنه ولكنها تكاد تجمع في غالبيتها على معنى واحد لمفهوم المسؤولية المجتمعية.
وهناك شبه إجماع على أن ممارسة مفهوم المسؤولية المجتمعية للمؤسسات مازال دون المستوى المطلوب، وربما نستطيع القول: إنه في بداية النضوج، وفي أحسن الأحوال يمكن القول: إن معظم مبادرات المسؤولية المجتمعية في اليمن تتراوح بين المبادرات الفردية للبعض، والتعبير عن النوايا الحسنة للبعض الآخر. ولا شك أن واقع ممارسة المسؤولية الاجتماعية في اليمن يتطلب مزيدًا من العمل والجهود لتكون هذه الممارسة جزءًا أساسياً وممارسة واعية وصحيحة ولتدعيم اتجاهات ممارسة مسؤولية مجتمعية حقيقية في واقعنا اليمني، وبما أن المسؤولية المجتمعية للمؤسسات اليمنية تعد ثقافة جديدة على المجتمع اليمني لا بد من تطوير السياسات والاستراتيجيات المرتبطة بها وفقًا للنماذج العالمية وبما يتناسب مع ظروف مجتمعنا وتحفيز القطاع الخاص بتعزيز دوره في هذا المجال ، لأنه ما زال دون مستوى الطموحات رغم إمكانياته الكبيرة، ولابد من إطلاق برنامج يهدف إلى تفعيل مشاركة القطاع الخاص وتفعيل الشراكة الحقيقية بين القطاعين العام والخاص لدعم البرامج المجتمعية وتبنيه البرامج التنموية والاجتماعية العاملة في اليمن وهناك من يرى في بعض مبادرات الشركات والقطاع الخاص على أنها جزء من أجندة تسويقية وأن ما يعزز مساهمات الشركات الكبرى في مسؤوليتها المجتمعية هو وجود منافس يقوم بهذا الدور بشكل أكبر مما يحفز المستهلك على شراء منتجات الشركة .
ويرى معظم الناس أن أهم مشكلة يعاني منها اليمن حالياً هي المشكلة الاقتصادية بالدرجة الأولى ، يليها بعد ذلك المشكلة الأمنية والإرهاب ، ولهذا يجب أن تتضافر كافة الجهود لإنجاحه والخروج بنتائج تساعد اليمن على معالجة المشاكل التي يعاني منها ، ولهذا فأن هناك العديد من الوسائل والطرق التي يمكن أتباعها للحد من التدهور الاقتصادي ، بل تساعد في تحسينه ، ومن أحد هذه الطرق هو دعم المشاريع الصغيرة والأصغر .
حيث أصبحت المشاريع الصغيرة والأصغر محل تركيز جهود معظم حكومات الدول النامية نظرا للدور الكبير الذي تلعبه في زيادة الإنتاج وتوفير فرص العمل إضافة إلى مساهمتها الفاعلة في زيادة معدلات النمو الاقتصادي وزباده الدخل القومي ودعم الناتج القومي الإجمالي للكثير من الدول .
ولهذا فأننا نسعى من خلال هذه الورقة إلى تقديم تصور مبدئي يوضح الدور الذي يمكن أن يساهم به القطاع الخاص في تفعيل دور المشاريع الصغيرة والأصغر ، للدفع بعجلة التطور الاقتصادي للبلد كجانب مسئولية اجتماعية تجاه المجتمع الذي نعيش فيه .
 
أهمية الورقة  وأهدافها:
-    توضيح مفهوم المسئولية الإجتماعية
-    مفهوم المشاريع الصغيرة والأصغر
-    تجارب المشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر للدول
-    دول ومساهمة المشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر في عملية التنمية الاقتصادية والإجتماعية
-    المعوقات والمشاكل التي تواجهه المشروعات الصغيرة .
-    ما الذي يمكن أن يقدمه القطاع الخاص للمشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر .
مفهوم المسئولية الاجتماعية :
يعرف البنك الدولي مفهوم المسؤولية المجتمعية على أنها التزام أصحاب النشاطات التجارية بالإسهام في التنمية المستدامة من خلال العمل مع المجتمع المحلي بهدف تحسين مستوى معيشة الناس بأسلوب يخدم الاقتصاد والتنمية في آن واحد)). وتعرف كيفية إدارة المؤسسات عملياتها لخلق تأثير إيجابي في المجتمع . وعرفها مجلس الأعمال العالمي للتنمية المستدامة على أنها : التزام شركات الأعمال المستمر بالتصرف أخلاقيًا والمساهمة في تحقيق التنمية الاقتصادية والعمل على تحسين نوعية الظروف المعيشية للقوى العاملة وعائلاتهم والمجتمع المحلي وللمجتمع ككل.
لماذا تحتاج البلد إلى تفعيل دور المشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر ؟
تمثل اليمن أشد البلدان فقراً على مستوى منطقة الشرق الأوسط ويعاني من تحديات متعددة ، تشمل النمو السكاني المرتفع وتدهور في الإمكانيات الاقتصادية وتوترات ونزاعات سياسية وضعف في الحكومة ،إضافة إلى إعتماد الإيرادات المالية اعتماداً كبيراً على قطاع النفط الذي يساهم في ثلثي إيرادات الدولة ويتوقع أن تنضب احتياطات النفط في اليمن خلال 8 -10 سنوات ، ويعني اعتماد الحكومة اليمنية على الإيرادات النفطية عدم وجود بديل متوسط الأجل لتوفير الإيرادات المالية اللازمة لتقديم الخدمات الاجتماعية للمواطنين.
ومن هنا فإن أيجاد مورد غير نفطي يعد أمراً هاماً للغاية لوقف التدهور الاقتصادي وعكس اتجاهه وتوليد فرص عمل كافية لوقف انزلاق البلد نحو مزيد من الفقر وإمكانية تزايد حالة من عدم الاستقرار المصحوب بالعنف.
 هناك مجموعة عوامل طويلة الأجل تحد من نمو القطاع الخاص ويظهر مسح "مؤشر ممارسة الأعمال" الذي نفذه البنك الدولي مع مؤسسة التمويل الدولية أن اليمن بالذات تحتل مرتبة ضعيفة فيما يتعلق بالحصول على القروض (المرتبة 152 من بين 183 دولة) وكذلك بخصوص مؤشر الأعباء الضريبية وتكلفة إدارة مدفوعات الضرائب (المرتبة 146 من 183) كما تحتل المرتبة 132 من بين 183 فيما يتعلق بحماية المستثمرين. وإجمالا فقد جاءت اليمن في المرتبة 105 من بين 183 دولة في مؤشر سهولة ممارسة الأعمال .  

مفهوم المشاريع الصغيرة والأصغر  
يختلف تعريف ومفهوم المشاريع الصغيرة والأصغر من دولة لأخرى وفقاً لاختلاف إمكانياتها وظروفها الاقتصادية والاجتماعية ،كما أن الدول الصناعية والنامية تختلفان في تعريف المشاريع الصغيرة والأصغر مما يجعل من الصعوبة إجراء المقارنة بينهما، فالمشاريع التي تعتبر متوسطة في الدول النامية تعد صغيرة في الدول الصناعية، كما أن المشاريع الكبيرة في الدول النامية تعد متوسطة في الدول الصناعية. وفي سبيل مواجهة الصعوبات في المقارنة درجت العديد من الدول المتقدمة والنامية على تبني تعريف منظمة العمل الدولية والتي تعرف المشاريع الصغيرة بأنها المشاريع التي يعمل بها أقل من 10 عمّال والمشاريع المتوسطة التي يعمل بها ما بين 10 إلى 99 عاملا، وما يزيد عن 99 تعد مشاريع كبيرة.
مؤشرات وضع المشروعات الصغيرة في العالم
هناك العديد من الوسائل والطرق التي يمكن أتباعها للحد من التدهور الإقتصادي ، بل تساعد في تحسينه ، ومن أحد هذه الطرق هو دعم المشاريع الصغيرة والأصغر، فعلى مستوى العالم منذ أواخر سبعينيات القرن الماضي ازداد عدد المشاريع الصغيرة والأصغر حتى باتت تشكل ما نسبته (90%) من حجم المشروعات الاقتصادية  وتشغل ما نسبته (50-60%) من حجم قوى العمل العالمية ، كما باتت تساهم بما لا يقل عن (45%) من الدخل القومي للكثير من الدول و (50%) من إجمالي حجم الناتج المحلي الإجمالي للكثير من الدول. والإحصاءات تؤكد أهمية المشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر فعلى سبيل المثال المشروعات الصغيرة في الولايات المتحدة تشكل 97% من إجمالي المشروعات الأمريكية وتساهم في حوالي 34% من ناتج القومي الإجمالي الأمريكي وتساهم في خلق 58% من إجمالي فرص العمل المتاحة في أمريكا ، وفي كندا تساهم في توفير 33% وفي اليابان 55.7% والفلبين 74% واندونسيا 88% وكوريا الجنوبية 35% وفي منطقة أسيا ودول حوض البيسفيك تمثل المشروعات الصغيرة ما نسبته (95%) من إجمالي حجم المشاريع وتشغل ما نسبته (35-85%) من إجمالي قوة العمل ، كما تشير بيانات البنك الدولي وصندوق النقد الدولي إلى أن الصناعات الصغيرة والأصغر تشكل ما نسبته (25-35%) من حجم الصادرات العالمية للمواد المصنعة، كما بلغت هذه النسبة بمعدلات عالية في بعض الدول الأسيوية حيت تقدر في الصين بنحو (60%) وكوريا الجنوبية (40%) وتايون (56%) من حجم صادرات تلك البلدان.
أما في العالم العربي فتتفاوت النسبة من دولة لأخرى ففي دول الخليج العربي تشكل الصناعات الصغيرة والأصغر العمود الفقري للقطاع الصناعي بنسبة تقدر بحوالي (85%) من إجمالي المنشآت الصناعية الموجودة.
هذا وقد أشارت دراسة حديثة أجرتها منظمة الخليج للاستثمارات إلى أن نسبة المصانع الصغيرة والأصغر قد بلغت (94%) من حجم مصانع دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة و (92%) من مصانع قطر عمان والبحرين و (75%) من مصانع السعودية و (78%) من مصانع الكويت .
ونستنتج من هذه الإحصائية مدى أهمية المشروعات الصغيرة لكافة الدول المتقدمة منها والنامية والتي تعتبر من أهم الدعائم الأساسية للنهوض في الاقتصاد الوطني هذا بالإضافة إلى الأثار الاجتماعية والتي تعتبر من ابرز المشاكل التي تواجه الدول والمتمثلة في البطالة ودورها في التكامل مع المشروعات الكبيرة . والقاعدة المتفق عليها
(إن المشروعات الكبيرة لا تنمو ولا تحقق أي نجاح ولا تزدهر اذا لم يوجد هناك مشروعات صغيرة توفر لها احتياجاتها من المواد والخدمات وتشتري منتجاتها). أي أن العلاقة تبادلية استمرارية ونجاح كل منهم على استمرارية ونجاح الأخر)
تجارب رائعة في اندونيسيا / بنغلادش / سنغافورة
•    تجربة اندونيسيا: تعتبر البطالة هي مصدر القلق الأكبر في اندونيسيا حيث يرتفع معدل الزيادة السكانية والقوى العاملة بوجه عام. إلا أن انخفاض معدلات النمو للمشاريع الكبيرة يحول دون تمكين هذه الصناعات من استيعاب القوى العاملة المتزايدة، في الوقت الذي أصبح القطاع الزراعي أيضاً غير قادر على خلق فرص عمل كافية. لذلك اتخذت اندونيسيا بعض السياسات لتطوير المنشآت الصغيرة.
•    تحسين قدرة هذه المنشات في مجال الصناعات الصغيرة والحرفية والصناعات الزراعية وبيوت التجارة.
•    زيادة وصول المنشآت الصغيرة والمتوسطة إلي الأسواق العالمية وزيادة الفرص التسويقية.
•    توفير التمويل لهذه المشاريع.
•    تقوية الإمكانيات الإدارية والتنظيمية.
•    تقوية شبكات العمل والشراكة
•    تجربة بنغلاديش:تعتبر تجربة 'بنك الفقراء' واحدة من أعظم التجارب المصرفية التي خاضتها الدول حيث تم في عام1976 تأسيس بنك الفقراء، وذلك بهدف منح قروض للفقراء بدون ضمان لمساعدتهم على إقامة مشاريع صغيرة تدر عليهم دخلاً يساعدهم على تحسين أوضاعهم المعيشية.
•    تجربة سنغافورة: فقد قام بنك التنمية السنغافوري بتوفير المساعدات المالية للمشاريع الصغيرة والمتوسطة بسعر فائدة ثابت وأقل من الأسعار التجارية وانضم إليها بعد ذلك عدد كبير من البنوك الأخرى. وقد تجلى التعاون الواضح والاهتمام من قبل الحكومة في إنشاء قسم لتنشيط التجارة والصادرات تابع لها كانت مهمته مساعدة المصدرين وتقديم الدراسات عن الأسواق الدولية، كما يقوم بتنظيم المؤتمرات ووضع وتنظيم
دور ومساهمة المشروعات الصغيرة في الاقتصاديات الوطنية:
ترجع أهمية مساهمة المشاريع الصغيرة والأصغر في عملية التنمية الاقتصادية والاجتماعية للأسباب التالية:
•    تعتمد المشاريع الصغيرة والأصغر على العمالة المكثفة، وتميل إلى توزيع الدخل بصورة أكثر عدالة مقارنة بالمؤسسات الكبيرة .
•    توفر فرص عمل لغير المؤهلين .
•    تساعد على تحقيق التنمية الإقليمية نظرا لإمكانية انتشارها جغرافيا ولا تحتاج إلى حيز مكاني كبير وهى بذلك يمكن أن تستوعب فائض العمل بالمناطق الريفية والأقل حظاً في النمو والتنمية وتدني الدخل وارتفاع البطالة.
•    تعد هذه المشاريع صناعات مغذية لغيرها من الصناعات ولها دورها في توسيع قاعدة الإنتاج المحلي،
•    تعظيم الاستفادة واستغلال المواد الأولية المتاحة محلياً لإنتاج سلع تامة الصنع تساهم في تلبية احتياجات وأذواق المستهلكين، إضافة إلى قدرة هذه المشاريع على العمل في مجال إنتاج الصناعات الحرفية والسلع الغذائية والاستهلاكية الصغيرة والأصغر التي يتم الحصول عليها من الخارج .
•    استغلال مدخرات المواطنين والاستفادة منها في الميادين الاستثمارية المختلفة، .
•    تسهم المشاريع الصغيرة والأصغر في رفع كفاءة تخصيص الموارد في الدول النامية.
•    اعتمادها على تقنيات بسيطة في الإنتاج مع الاعتماد على قوة العمل الإنساني مما يساعد على التغلب النسبي على مشكلة البطالة مع عدم الحاجة إلى رؤوس أموال كبيرة
•    اعتمادها غالبا على مدخلات إنتاج ووسائط محلية مما يقلل من الحاجة إلى العملات الأجنبية
•    سهولة تأسيسها نظراً لعدم حاجتها إلى رأس مال كبير أو تكنولوجيا متطورة
•    تغطية الطلب المحلي على المنتجات التي يصعب إقامة صناعات كبيرة لإنتاجها لضيق نطاق السوق المحلية .
المعوقات والمشاكل التي تواجه المشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر:
 إن نمو وتطور قطاع المشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر في كافة أنحاء العالم يواجه مجموعة من المشاكل، ، وتعتبر طبيعة المشاكل التي تتعرض لها المشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر متداخلة مع بعضها البعض ، وبشكل عام يعتبر جزء من هذه المشاكل داخلي وهي المشاكل التي تحدث داخل المؤسسة أو بسبب صاحبها، في حين أنها تعتبر مشاكل خارجية إذا حدثت بفعل وتأثير عوامل خارجية أو البيئة المحيطة بهذه المنشآت ، ويمكن تلخيص أهم المشاكل التي تواجه المشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر وبشكل عام في كافة أنحاء العالم:
1-    المعوقات الخارجية
•    ضعف وقصور مصادر التمويل والتي تتمثل في إحجام الجهات التمويلية عن توفير التمويل اللازم لتأسيس وتشغيل المنشآت الصغيرة والأصغر .
•    عدم توفر المساعدات الفنية المقدمة للمشاريع الصغيرة خاصة في مجالات إكساب مهارات العمل.
•    مشكلة توفير المواد الخام التي يتم استيرادها نظرا لضالة الكميات التي تطلبها المنشآت .
•    عدم استفادة غالبية المشاريع الصغيرة والأصغر من الإعفاءات الضريبية والجمركية .
•    عدم وجود جهة معينة تهتم بشؤونها .
•    التضخم من حيث تأثيره في ارتفاع أسعار المواد الأولية وكلفة العمل
•    يعتبر نظام الضرائب أحد أهم المشاكل التي تواجه المشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر في جميع أنحاء العالم.
•    ارتفاع تكلفة النقل وهو احدى العوامل المؤثرة في أسعار البيع وضعف أو قوة الموقف التنافسي للسلع المصدرة .
2-    المعوقات الداخلية
•    ضعف الخبرات الإدارية والمالية  والفنية والتسويقية لدى أصحاب هذه المشاريع .
•    العشوائية في تنفيذ المشروعات .
•    مشاكل السيولة .
•    انخفاض الإنتاج .
•    تردي نوعية الإنتاج .
•    لا توجد أصلا لدى هذه المنشآت أو أكثرها أية اهتمامات ببحوث التسويق .
•    التعسير العشوائي .
•    عدم الاهتمام الكافي بتعبئة وتغليف السلعة .
ما الذي يمكنه أن يقدمه القطاع الخاص للمشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر :
•    ضرورة دعم الجهات التمويلية المتخصصة والبنوك في تمويل وتقديم الخدمات المصرفية للمشروعات الصغيرة ومساعدتها في تقديم خدماتها لهم ، وذلك لتبسيط التعاون وتسهيل استفادة المشروعات الصغيرة من أي تمويل متاح ميسر العائد.
•    تقديم إعفاءات وحوافز ضريبية مباشرة وغير مباشرة عملا بمبدأ العدالة الضريبية وتشجيع الناس على الإنتاج في منازلهم وقرائهم ، لتحفيزها وتعزيز قدرتها التنافسية.
•     تبسيط الإجراءات للمشروعات الصغيرة فيما يتعلق بإصدار التراخيص والضمانات المطلوبة .
•    ضرورة تدعيم دور اتحاد الغرف التجارية من حيث دعم تفعيل دورها في عمليات خلق الأنشطة ومتابعة المتعاملين مع النظر في استخدامها في خلق أسواق البيع والمعارض
•    إنشاء مركز تدريب متخصص في المشروعات الصغيرة ، ويقوم بتقديم الدورات التدريبية التخصيصية في مجال المشروعات الصغيرة ومجالات عملها ، وكيفية إدارتها وتطويرها ، وفي كافة الجوانب المختلفة لهذا القطاع .
•    إنشاء صندوق تمويل للمشروعات الصغيرة بدعم القطاع الخاص وتحت إدارته وبالتعاون مع المنظمات والجهات الدولية الداعمة لهذا المجال .
•    أنشاء صندوق أو شركة  لتسويق منتجات المشروعات الصغيرة وبتمويل من القطاع الخاص . اضافة الى مشاركتها في العطاءات الحكومية .
•    تمويل مشروع إعداد دراسات جدوى للمشروعات الصغيرة ، بحيث يتم إعداد مجموعة من دراسة الجدوى الإقتصادية لعدد من المشاريع الصغيرة وبحسب احتياجات المجتمع وتكون موفرة لمن يحتاجها برسوم رمزية .
•    رعاية حملة توعوية وترويجية ، وذلك للترويج بأهمية أنشاء المشروع الصغيرة ، وبضرورة دعم هذه المشروعات من قبل المجتمع ، وذلك سواء من حيث شراء منتجات هذه المشاريع أو توفير الدعم وتسهيل أعمالها ، أو بتشجيع الشباب على أنشاء مشاريع خاصة .
•    إنشاء موقع إلكتروني يعمل على توفير كافة المعلومات والبيانات التي تحتاج إليها المشروعات الصغيرة ، إضافة إلى استقبال الطلبات والأفكار الجديدة .
•    إنشاء إتحاد للمشروعات الصغيرة وبتمويل من القطاع الخاص ، يعمل على متابعة كافة قضايا المشروعات الصغيرة ويعالج مشاكلها ويمثلها في المؤتمرات والإجتماعات واللقاءات وكل ما يتعلق بها ، ويعمل على إيصال صوتها ومتطلباتها للجهات المعنية ، ويعمل على توفير الدعم اللوجستي والفني والتقني والتكنولوجي للمشروعات الصغيرة .
•    إمكانية دخول الشركات الكبيرة كشركاء مع الشركات الصغيرة في تنفيذ المشاريع الجديدة والتي تعد كمصادر توسعية جديد .



المصادر
•    الحوار المتمدن-العدد: 2756 - 2009 / 9 / 1 - 18:11
•    الوسط - العدد 2439 الاثنين 11 مايو 2009 الموافق 15 جمادى الأولى 1430 ه
•    المشروعات الصغيرة والأصغر  - أهميتها ومعوقاتها  - إعداد/ الدكتور ماهر حسن المحروق والدكتور أيهاب مقابله -  مركز المنشآت الصغيرة والأصغر - أيار 2006
•    يوسف و عبد السلام و آخرون

دعماً لمخرجات مؤتمر الحوار الوطني الشامل أطلقت وزارة حقوق الإنسان:

 ــ وثيقة رقم (1) حقوق الإنسان في مخرجات مؤتمر الحوار الوطني الشامل:عبارة عن دراسة تحليلية تُبرزُ بشكلٍ خاص وَمُركز سياق حقوق الإنسان ضمن القرارات النهائية لمؤتمر الحوار الوطني ـ في إطارٍ يُمكن الإستناد اليه كمرجعية لمضامين حقوق الإنسان بأطرها المؤسسية وَالقانونية والقضايا والإتجاهات العامة في سياق نصوص مخرجات الحوار وَالفئات ذات الإرتباط وَمكون الشراكة مع مختلف القطاعات الفاعلة في المجتمع، كما تُقدم الوثيقة رؤية لأولويات الحقوق وَالحريات في الإطار الدستوري المرتقب. 

 ــ وثيقة رقم (2) الإطار الدستوري للحقوق وَالحريات: عبارة عن تصور نوعي لإطار حقوق الإنسان وَالحريات العامة ويتضمن الإطار المقترح مجموعة الحقوق الأساسية لمختلف الفئات ووسائل وضمانات إحترامها وتعزيزها وقد تم تخصيص هذا الإصدار في إطار الدعم الفني للجنة صياغة الدستور. إقرأ المزيد

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